Quantum Phase Transitions
Wednesday, 11:15-13:00; Friday, 09:15-11:00; (starting on 22/04) INF 227 (KIP), SR 2.404. [LSF]
Register and view group list and further information, and download material here. (More places available!)
Classes take place on Fridays, 14:15-15:45 hrs, starting on 08/05: INF 227 (KIP), SR 3.403.
The lecture course provides an introduction to the theory of classical and quantum phase transitions, to position-space as well as Wilson renormalisation-group theory. Emphasis will be set on broadly used spin models as well as bosonic field theories relevant in particular for applications in the field of ultracold atomic gases. Methodologically, the lecture will build on the basics of the operator as well as the path-integral approach to quantum field theory. Basic knowledge of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory is presumed.
- Classical phase transitions - phase diagram of water - Ehrenfest classification - continuous phase transitions - quantum phase transitions
Phase transition in the classical Ising model
- Ising Hamiltonian - Spontaneous symmetry breaking - Thermodynamic properties - Phase transitions in the Ising model - Landau mean-field theory - Mean-field critical exponents - Correlation functions - Hubbard Stratonovich transformation - Functional-integral representation - Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson functional - Saddlepoint approximation and Gaussian effective action - Ginzburg criterion
Renormalisation-group theory in position space
- Block-spin transformation - Transfer-matrix solution of the 1D Ising chain - RG stepping for the 1D and 2D Ising models - Critical point - RG fixed points - Relevant and irrelevant couplings - Universality and universality class - Renormalisation-group flows - Scaling properties of the free energy and of the two-point correlation function - Scaling relations between critical exponents - The scaling hypothesis
Wilson's Renormalisation Group
- Perturbation theory - Linked-Cluster and Wick's theorems - Dyson equation - One-loop critical properties - Dimensional analysis - Momentum-scale RG - Gaussian fixed point - Wilson-Fisher fixed point - Epsilon-expansion - Critical exponents - Wave function renormalisation and anomalous dimension - Suppl. Mat.: Asymptotic expansions
Quantum phase transitions
- Quantum Ising model - Mapping of the classical Ising chain to a quantum spin model - Universal scaling behaviour - Thermal as time-ordered correlators - Quantum to classical mapping - Perturbative spectrum of the transverse-field Ising model - Jordan Wigner transformation and exact spectrum - Universal crossover functions near the quantum critical point - Anomalous scaling dimension - Low-temperature and quantum critical regimes - Conformal mapping - Spectral properties close to criticality - Structure factor, susceptibility, and linear response - Relaxational response in the quantum critical regime
Textbooks on critical phenomena and (quantum) phase transitions
- D. Belitz und T.R. Kirkpatrick, in J. Karkheck (Hrsg.), Dynamics: Models and kinetic methods for non-equilibrium many-body systems. Kluwer, Dordrecht (2000). [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- John Cardy, Scaling and renormalization in statistical physics. CUP, Cambridge, 2003. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- Peter Kopietz, Lorenz Bartosch, Florian Schütz, Introduction to the Functional Renormalization Group. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2010. [ Google books | HEIDI (online) | Errata and Addenda ]
- Lincoln D. Carr (Ed.), Understanding quantum phase transitions. CRC-Press, Boca Raton, 2011. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- Nigel Goldenfeld, Lectures on phase transitions and the renormalization group. Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1992. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- Igor Herbut, A modern approach to critical phenomena. CUP, Cambridge, 2007. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- Subir Sachdev, Quantum Phase Transitions. CUP, Cambridge, 2011. [ Google books | HEIDI (incl. online) ]
- S. L. Sondhi, S. M. Girvin, J. P. Carini, and D. Shahar, Continuous quantum phase transitions. Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 315 (1997). [ arXiv:cond-mat/9609279 ]
- Jean Zinn-Justin, Quantum field theory and critical phenomena. Clarendon, Oxford, 2004. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
Reviews on critical phenomena and (quantum) phase transitions
- Luigi Amico, Rosario Fazio, Andreas Osterloh, and Vlatko Vedral, Entanglement in many-body systems. Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 517 (2008). [arXiv:quant-ph/0703044v3]
General texts on statistical mechanics
- Kerson Huang, Statistical Mechanics. Wiley, 1987. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- Linda E. Reichl, A Modern Course in Statistical Physics. Wiley Interscience, 2nd edition 1998. [ Google books (3rd ed.) | HEIDI ]
- Frederick Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- Franz Schwabl, Statistische Mechanik. Springer, Heidelberg, 2000. [ Google books | HEIDI (pdf online) ]
- M. Toda, R. Kubo, N. Saito, Statistical Physics, Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, Springer, 2nd edition 1992. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
General texts on quantum field theory
- Brian Hatfield, Quantum Field Theory of Point Particles and Strings. Addison Wesley, Oxford, 2010. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- Michael E. Peskin, Daniel V. Schroeder An introduction to quantum field theory. Westview, Boulder, 2006. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- Xiao-Gang Wen, Quantum Field Theory of Many-Body Systems. OUP, Oxford, 2010. [ Google books | HEIDI ]
- The Weirdness of Water, by Rachel Brazil, Chem. World, 6 Apr 2020 -- on Russo et al., Water-like anomalies as a function of tetrahedrality, PNAS 115, E3333 (2018).
- Experiments realising critical opalescence and supercritical fluidity in Water and Carbon Dioxide (further, commercial video with explanations).
- Applet simulating the 2D Ising model (You may have to adapt your Java settings to not block this page as well as isingApplet.html and isingText.html in the same path).
- 2D Ising model MC-simulator by D. on Wolfram.
- Visualization of the real-space renormalisation group for a 2D Ising system by D. Ashton (Straight to video on youtube).
- Visualization of the scale invariance of critical fluctuations of a 2D Ising system
Problem sets must be handed in and will be marked. Achieving a minimum of 50% will be the condition to obtain 8 CPs for the lecture.