KIP publications

year 2024
author(s) Keisuke Fujii, Sarah L. Görlitz, Nikolas Liebster, Marius Sparn, Elinor Kath, Helmut Strobel, Markus K. Oberthaler, and Tilman Enss
title Stable-fixed-point description of square-pattern formation in driven two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates
KIP-Nummer HD-KIP 24-30
KIP-Gruppe(n) F17,F32
document type Paper
source Phys. Rev. A 109, L051301
doi https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.109.L051301
Abstract (en)

We investigate pattern formation in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) caused by periodic driving of the interatomic interaction. We show that this modulation generically leads to a stable square grid density pattern, due to nonlinear effects beyond the initial Faraday instability. We take the amplitudes of two waves parametrizing the two-dimensional density pattern as order parameters in pattern formation. For these amplitudes, we derive a set of coupled time-evolution equations from the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-periodic interaction. We identify the fixed points of the time evolution and show by stability analysis that the inhomogeneous density exhibits a square grid pattern, which can be understood as a manifestation of a stable fixed point. Our stability analysis establishes the pattern in BECs as a nonequilibrium steady state.

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