KIP publications

year 2022
author(s) Tan, J Y S; Cheng, Z; Feldmann, J; Li, X; Youngblood, N; Ali, U E; Wright, C D; Pernice, W H P; Bhaskaran, H
title Monadic Pavlovian associative learning in a backpropagation-free photonic network
KIP-Nummer HD-KIP 22-75
KIP-Gruppe(n) F31
document type Paper
source Optica, Volume 9, Issue 7: 792-802
doi 10.1364/OPTICA.455864
Abstract (en)

Over a century ago, Ivan P. Pavlov, in a classic experiment, demonstrated how dogs can learn to associate a ringing bell with food, thereby causing a ring to result in salivation. Today, it is rare to find the use of Pavlovian type associative learning for artificial intelligence (AI) applications even though other learning concepts, in particular backpropagation on artificial neural networks (ANNs) have flourished. However, training using the backpropagation method on 'conventional' ANNs, especially in the form of modern deep neural networks (DNNs), is computationally and energy intensive. Here we experimentally demonstrate a form of backpropagation-free learning using a single (or monadic) associative hardware element. We realize this on an integrated photonic platform using phase-change materials combined with on-chip cascaded directional couplers. We then develop a scaled-up circuit network using our monadic Pavlovian photonic hardware that delivers a distinct machine-learning framework based on single-element associations and, importantly, using backpropagation-free architectures to address general learning tasks. Our approach reduces the computational burden imposed by learning in conventional neural network approaches, thereby increasing speed, whilst also offering higher bandwidth inherent to our photonic implementation.

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